The lungs are composed of small sacs called alveoli that, when a healthy person breathes, fill up with air. The alveoli are filled with pus and fluid when a person has pneumonia, which makes breathing difficult and reduces oxygen intake. It can be caused by different germs, viruses and bacteria. It affects people of all ages especially children. Our body immune system try to prevent these infections but if immunity is weak, our body gets infected by these germs and causes pneumonia. Generally, it’s caused by a bacterial infection. A virus, such as the corona virus (COVID-19), may also cause it.
Fig: Difference between healthy and inflamed air sacs.
This is biggest single infectious cause of death in children worldwide. In 2017, pneumonia killed 808,694 children under the age of 5, accounting for 15 percent of all deaths among children under the age of five. Children and families everywhere are affected by pneumonia, but it is most common in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. It can be avoided with easy procedures, and managed with low-cost, low-tech treatment and care.